You Don't Buy My Book -- Not Really, but . . .

Why not? 

Wouldn't my book "50 + 1" be better for your student than another video game?  Buy them the game but balance out their time between learning to do better in school and relaxation.  Or do you want to write better reports for your work, or just become a better blogger?

What about your police officer?  

My book, "Police Officer's Response Guide to Crimes/Incidents in Progress."   Wouldn't it be wonderful to help keep him/her safer by buying them a book on how to stay safer while responding to calls?  Especially those high-risk calls.

Another video game or necktie, or better education and survival? 

All the information about my books is just to the right in the middle column.  Merely click on the links to get the information to make up your mind

You Don't Have A Code Word

A few days ago I met a neighbor's son.  We only had a brief conversation as his dad reminded him that they were late in picking up his daughter.  I don't know where his daughter was or her age and those facts are not germane to this Post.  What is important is that a daughter, like all children, doesn't get in a car with a stranger, especially one that doesn't know the Code Word.

Both the child and parent should never divulge the Code Word unless necessary, so the child can be picked up by a trusted person.  Although this has been around for many years, it's a good idea to repeat it for those who may not be aware of it.

The important thing is to convince the child never to say it, but that only the adult that will pick up the child will say it.  Why?

Pedophiles are very cunning people.  Many know of this safety factor and therefore will try to trick the child in revealing the Code Word by telling the child that he was sent by his mother and that she can't get a ride home unless she (the child) knows the code word; thereby, revealing it to the pedophile who will then confirm it; putting the child at ease and then able to get the child in the car.

Of course, unless it's a life or death situation, a parent should never ask someone to pick up their child that the child doesn't know and trust.

You Don't Support The Freedom Fighters In Hong Kong

My respect and my best wishes go out to the Freedom Fighters in Hong Kong.  For 99-years, Hong Kong was a British Crown Colony and the residents enjoyed freedom.  Now that the lease expired, the territory reverted back to China.  As China is a Communist country, it is curtailing the freedom of the people that they have enjoyed for those 99 years. 

It is heart-warming to know that some people in this world of ours still have the flame-of-freedom still burning in their hearts.

Best of luck, you freedom-fighters, and I pray and hope that you are successful.  

My wish is to be able to revisit your great city someday.  I enjoyed the visit tremendously.

Top 10 pageviews today on this site.

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You Don't Know, "My (golfing) thought for today." Stop Signs

Along the highways and byways, usually, the street with the least amount of traffic is the one that has a stop sign.  Those signs mean that the driver that has the stop sign must come to a total cessation of movement, i.e., STOP.
What does this have to do with golf?  Nothing, except that it has to do with golfers driving golf carts on roads and golf cart paths that lead to and traverse roadways.
On the roadways which lead to and from golf communities, there are stop signs, also there are stop signs at the end of golf cart paths at the intersection with roads that are used by vehicular traffic.

I live in a golf community and all the roadways and golf cart pathways have stop signs at all the intersections.  In the five years that I've lived here, there is absolutely no one that has ever stopped for a stop sign.  Vehicles, at least, do slow down a bit before continuing through the stop sign.  Golf cart drivers . . . not so much.  
What and who is supposed to stop at stop signs according to law?
Trucks, cars, bicycles, motorcycles, go-carts, all-terrain vehicles, pedestrians, and, of course, GOLF CARTS.

"What does this have to do with golf?  With your ability to continue to play golf, that you won't be able to if you have an accident with a truck.

You Don't Know, "My (golfing) thought for today." Divets

Divets and more divets.  One sometimes wonders whether amateur golfers are afraid to hurt the grass on the fairways based on my recent observations.  You can't hurt the grass, so take a divet with your fairway irons: just replace them.  

Amateurs, I suspect, think that the different lofts of the clubs are to pick up the ball.  This usually results with the leading edge coming into contact with the ball resulting in a very low shot or a complete flub.  The proper contact with the ball is in a downward motion of the club face, continuing into the ground, and continuing in a forward motion.  This is what causes the divet.  (Observe the pros on TV.)

Years ago while playing with a pro and after a few holes, he told my buddy and me to go to the rough and dig some holes; which we did.   You don't dig a hole under the ball, you hit the ball first and continue in a downward motion while continuing the forward motion through the follow through.  This motion will force the ball up the face of the club resulting in a lofty shot. 

This motion is not for your fairway woods or driving irons such as the 2 or 3 iron, but you should still scruff up the grass a bit.
Even when you're on the tee and your ball is teed up, you're still moving the club head in a slightly downward motion, without necessarily hitting the ground, so the ball obtains the desired loft.   

A stranger in New York City several years ago asked a New Yorker, "How do you get to Carnegie Hall?"  To which the New Yorker answered, "Practice, practice, practice."  So go in your backyard and dig some holes.  With a golf iron, not a shovel.

You Can't Take Two Minutes To Enjoy The Wild Horses

On this day Oct. 3rd, at 5:30 p.m. I was sitting in my living room enjoying a Jack Daniels on the rocks and the blazing fire in the fireplace, all this while having a nice chat with my wife.  As pleasant as all of this was, it paled with the sight of what I saw through the window; the wild horses sauntering down the street in front of my house on D--r P--k Dr.

Eight mature wild horses, followed by a baby horse, by a young horse, and two more mature horses.  My wife and I quickly ran to a front window to admire them, as we usually do whenever they are around, but immediately there were three cars, a black SUV followed by a red SUV and followed by a white thing that looked like a box coming down the street in the opposite direction.  The cars drove right up to the horses and stopped so close to each other that they formed a wall so the horses on one side couldn't follow the others. The cars were filled with very important people, they must have been, as they just couldn't stop to enjoy these magnificent beasts.  They did stop for a second or two but immediately started driving slowly.  As the horses surrounding the cars became frightened they started to run in the opposite direction of their intended travel.  As almost everyone on my street is retired, what was their hurry?  Were they going to the club to feed their faces?  At their age, no one was ready to have a baby--for sure.  They could not take two minutes to allow the horses to continue on their way?  It was so sad to observe.

The reason a herd travels is to find a better feeding ground; this was denied to them.  At this time of year, it is extremely important for the animals to get as much nutrition to give them a better chance to survive the upcoming winter.

You're A Female Athlete And You Compete Against A Man.

To all female athletes:

Whenever there is a man at the starting line, don't run. Chit-chat, do your nails, or whatever.

Let the idiot run by himself. If you don't, then you're telling everyone that second place is good enough for you.

(This merely pertains to the physical attributes between males and females.  It does not pertain to other fields, or the mental capacity of both.)

You think Colorado has empathy for their homeless

My (political) thought for today

The headline reads, "Colorado spends three million from marijuana tax to feed and house the homeless."

Sure makes Colorado sound like a wonderful, compassionate, and generous state, but as Paul Harvey used to say, "Here is the rest of the story."

Budget -- $30.5 billion.
Debt -- $17 billion.

And what do they spend on illegal aliens?

$1.1 billion.

That's about 30,000% more they spend on illegals than their homeless. (Or 3,000% more, whatever.)

You Don't Know, "My (golfing) thought for today." Look At The Ball

Of course, this Post pertains to all golf shots.  One of the major problems with week-end golfers is that they want to see where the ball ends up before they hit the ball.  This results in  a flubbed shot.  The other day I watched a golfer, at that famous par-3, flub a shot.  His ball was 12 inches from the green and he wanted to watch the ball go in the hole, so just before hitting the ball he looked up which resulted in the ball travelling all of four inches: which was his third shot.

There are a few solutions to correct this problem.

1.  When driving, let your partner(s) keep their eyes on the ball so you won't have to worry about where it went.  Many years ago while on the 18th tee, it was nearly totally dark.  After driving the ball I walked up to the spot where I felt where the ball would have landed based on how I had hit the ball..  When I got to the spot, my ball was there.

2.  When putting, don't look up to see where the ball is going, keep looking at where the ball was and listen. I used to love to hear the "plop" (noise) of the ball falling into the hole.  It's the sweeteast sound you'll ever hear.

3.  When driviing or when using a fairway iron, let your shoulder lift up your head, not lifting your head to look for the ball before your shoulder has done its full turn.

If you follow these, you will flub a lot less shots resulting in a lower score.  Relax and have fun out there.  If you're a scratch golfer, forget about my tips. 

You Don't Believe That Communism Is Taking A Hold In America

My letter to the editor that I believed that Communism was starting to take hold in America.

To the Editor:

Dear Sir, 

'Open Letter to One'

“As soon as you abuse the privilege of being free, you are no longer.”

Your freedoms may not be taken from you at that very instant, because a great number of other people all around you have not fallen into your plight but it has died inside you where it counts the most.

Although the outward appearance will look the same, as you may still be able to do as you normally did before, it will appear to you more and more as you go on, that you have lost your zest in doing what before seemed a great fulfillment in your life.

Besides the fact that you are living in frustration and despair, from dreary days into drearier nights and back again. You are still but only one lost to freedom, for now you become a follower. For without a fulfillment in doing what you desire you accept the thoughts, actions and desires of others. You become a conformist, compromiser, pacifist and what have you.

If, as some have done, you finally analyze what you have let yourself into, but say, Oh Well! Everyone else seems OK, so I'll just coast along and see what happens. Never regaining enough of yourself to take the time and the effort to get out of this dilemma. Also never realizing just how many others have also fallen into your plight.

Others around you, without as strong a will as your own, see that you are still—at least outwardly—a close image of your former self, but without expending the energy you used to use to partake in the actions which were necessary for maintaining your personal freedoms, without an apparent loss of these freedoms. So now they also, slowly but surely, abuse their own privilege of being free.
Now all these, “I'm only one,” have multiplied themselves over and over again.

Now a lot of people who have thought what they were doing was right. But, seeing this change, begin to wonder maybe some of it is wrong. Gosh! This must be the modern look, everyone else seems to be doing just the opposite these days, maybe I'd better get on the bandwagon before someone thinks I'm not keeping up with the times.

Now we have a majority from one. Hello, Communism.

Damn it! I forgot to lock my back door again. Thank You.

Yours Truly,

Norbert A. Tanguay

(The above letter was written and mailed to Time Magazine on April 28, 1961)

You Don't Know Which One You Are

The word of God, through the Bible said:

“What you do to the least of my brethren, you do unto Me.” -- Matthew, Chapter 25, 34-46.

Most, if not all Christians know the meaning of this Proverb. Feeding a homeless person or helping a lost child would be part of this Proverb, as both could be considered one of, “the least of My brethren.”

But, what about 45?

45 “He will reply, ‘Truly I tell you, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for Me.”

This, of course, speaks of an act of omission. If you see, are aware of, and can do something and you don't, then you also didn't do it to God. I believe most Christians are completely unaware of #45.

Let's take it further.

What if one is helping, “the least of His brethren,” the ones with a physical or psychological hurt and another person tries to prevent that person from doing what is right for these, which certainly are, “the least of His brethren,” does not, then, that person also fall into the category, “you did not do for one of the least of these?”

Of course, then, #46 will come into play when one reaches his final judgment.

46 “Then they will go away to eternal punishment, . . .”

You Don't Know, "My (golfing) thought for today." Putting


The lie of the century is, “Practice Makes Perfect.” You can practice night and day incorrectly and you'll never be perfect. You should, then, obey the five P's.

Perfect Practice Produces Perfect Performance

It is also known that one has to perform a task 3,000 times for it to become fluid and natural. Those 3,000 times, though, must follow the 5 Ps. 

Putting regimen:

  1. Place six balls, six inches from and around the hole, putt each one into the hole and repeat five times. If you miss at any time during the 36 stroke cycle you have to start at the beginning and continue until all 36 putts are made--with no misses. Why six inches? Because all putting strokes should be strong enough to travel up to six inches beyond the hole. If the ball is online then it will go in.  If it doesn't then you won't miss the next putt. Once you've accomplished this then go to #2.
    Note:  If you're only a few inches from the cup, then, obviously you'll only putt to within an inch beyond the cup.
  1. Place five balls, 12 inches from and around the hole, putt them in and repeat four more times. If you miss any putt, then you start over.
  1. Place four balls 24 inches from and around the hole, putting them in and repeat three more times. If you miss any putt, then you start over.
  2. Place three balls 36 inches from and around the hole, putting them in and repeat two more times. If you miss any putt, then you start over.

Whenever you miss a putt during play from any one of these distances, you must practice from that distance and continue through the sequence, i.e., if you miss a 12-inch putt you must practice #2, #3, & #4. (You don't have to do it all on the same day).

(This post does not pertain to those who never practice and are satisfied to break 100 . . . occasionally.)

You Believe That It's Also Fun For The Wild Horses

Feeding Wild Horses . . . Don't!

The basic concept is, "No Feed. No Approach."

"No Feed." Feeding the wild horses can be harmful, often causing painful colic, and may result in death. Apples and carrots kill wild horses. Wild horses cannot eat any food that is not from their natural habitat.

Certainly, we admire and photograph them as they are such magnificent animals, but DO NOT FEED, as it is illegal both on the Federal and State level. If you feel that a horse or several horses are in distress, then you should call the proper authorities who then will come out and take care of them.

"No Approach." Wild horses should be skittish of humans. By approaching too close and feeding them, they lose their fear of humans. This makes them hang around built-up areas looking for handouts where there is more traffic causing them being hit by cars. The general rule is to stay 50-feet from them.

If while approaching, the horse starts to back up, so should you. This should tell you that it feels threatened. Remember, these are wild animals and when they feel that they are being threatened they may bite or injure you in other ways.

You've come to the mountains or the shores for a few days and you think that you're helping the animals by giving them a treat, but in reality you, most often, cause them to suffer excruciating pain for several days and if they cannot overcome this trauma . . . they die.

And when they become dependent on humans for their food and you go back home after your visit, who then will feed them?

You Don't Know, "My (golfing) thought for today." Under-clubbing.

Stop Under-clubbling.

Today, I watched four golfers hit on a short par 3. The closest to the green was 3/4ers of the way and the shortest was less than halfway.

Amateurs are afraid that their golf ball will go over the green, so they always under-club.

Let's stick to the par-3's for now, but it still works for the 2nd shot on a par-4, and the third shot on a par-5.

By being afraid to go past the flag, you never reach the green, let alone the hole; therefore, it takes one more shot to reach the green.
1 shot 3/4'ers of the way plus 1 shot to the green = 2 shots.

If you shoot for over-the-green, you'll have to chip back to the green.
1 shot over the green plus 1 chip shot back to the green = 2 shots, so what have you lost.  2 shots or 2 shots to get on the green is the same number of shots.

But if you go for an over-the-green shot; 80% of the time, the ball will land on the green, saving you one stroke.

With an 80% success rate you'll save 14 strokes off of your score. (14 strokes will only work if you also use this on the 4's and 5's, not just the par 3's.)

But amateurs won't even try it, as they're afraid.

Remember the truest statement in golf.

"Never up, never in."

Meaning: If the ball never reaches the hole it will never go in.

You Don't Leave a Space When Stopped

I've talked about the dangers of tailgating and being tailgated, but what about the distance that you should leave between your car and the car in front of you when stopping at a red light or stop sign.

The rule is, when stopped, you should still be able to see the rear tires of the car in front of you. Why?

1. As the car in back of you usually stops within inches, if you were inches from the car in front, you would not be able to get out of line and escape in the event of an emergency in the car in front of you, e.g., such as if it's on fire.

2. Many times the lead car stops in the cross walk and/or beyond the white line. If a truck is trying to turn left from the street on the right, the car in front of you will have to back up. If you're pinned in, it will take a long time to get everyone to back up. Without thinking, he might just back up into you.

3. If you're up against the car in front of you and get rear-ended, the force of the collision will push your car into the one in front of you. This will cause your car to be damaged both in the rear and in front. The damage caused to the car in front of you by your car may be considered to be your fault. You may get a ticket, For Failure to Maintain a Reasonable Distance and a hike in your insurance premiums.

4. To save time. This will actually save you time in leaving the intersection. When the car in front of me starts to move, so do I, at nearly the same time. If I was within inches of the car in front of me, I'd have to wait until it gets a reasonable distance away before I could even start to move; therefore, I don't save any time by being closer.

 Rule: If you can't see the rear tires, you're too close.

You Allow Someone to Tailgate You

I've mentioned the fact many times that tailgating is very dangerous, so maybe a few of you have taken my advice to heart and no longer tailgate. Good for you.

But, do you let others tailgate you? It's just as dangerous to be tailgated than to tailgate. Both cars in a tailgating accident are part of the statistics of 2.7 million accidents, 750,000 hospitalizations, and 15,000+ killed every year in the United States. (Statistics refer to the United States only).
Does it matter to you if it's the other driver's fault if you or a member of your family is killed?

Don't let another driver tailgate you. If you can't see all of his front tires, he's tailgating you and placing you in grave danger.
What to do:

1. Put on your emergency flashers and take your foot off of the gas pedal and allow your car to slow down gradually.  Only reduce your speed a little to give him a clue.
DO NOT slam on your brakes as he'll most probably hit you and it'll be your fault for causing the accident. This works most of the time. OR

2. If possible, turn on your turn signal, slow down gradually and pull off to the side of the road and allow stupid to pass. OR

3. Engage your windshield washer and leave it on until the car backs off. This causes the fluid to run up the windshield, over the roof of your car and land on the windshield of the car in back of you. This works (almost) all the time.

Whether you're tailgating or being tailgated the danger to yourself is the same.

You Try To Silence Free Speech

Image may contain: 1 person, text that says 'Candace Owens Saturday at 08:55 IMPORTANT!!! Many of me but yesterday Facebook attempted to me from their platform posting statistics of father absence in the black community and how it correlates to household poverty. Fortunately, Twitter, Facebook reversed the suspension. However- yesterday employee of Facebook contacted Breitbart News and leaked an internal memo, revealing that Facebook is offering "extra to employees figure segregate platform. SERIOUS Facebook confirmed document in question am considering legal action, but in the interim, need everyone to share status update and wide. Social media companies actively attempting to in election by silencing exposing liberals.'

You Don't Know the Quack, Quack Signal

This is an attempt by me to establish a signal that will advise other drivers that there is a problem with the lights on their car. Although I do occasionally pull into a parking lot behind a car with a problem with the light(s), it's impossible to communicate with the driver in the other car while traveling on the highway.  By using the following signal, which looks like a duck quacking, it should be sufficient to accomplish that goal. The following are some of the basic problems associated with lights on a car.

  1. A light is burned out.  The primary reason, 90% of the time.
  2. The turn signal is on when not warranted.  Or use your left, right, left, etc., 3-clicks each way.
  3. Headlights on high beam during the day. Low beam headlights, or traveling lights, aids the oncoming driver to see you from a greater distance; enhancing both your safety. They are not so you can see better. High beams during the day do not help your visibility, but it does bother the oncoming driver's vision, placing both of you in greater danger. Use low beam or running lights during the day.  Or flash your high beams, but DON'T leave them on.

You Don't Know How To Maintain Speed

To get to town, we that live on the mountain have to drive downhill, uphill, and then a steep downhill.
The speed limit on this road is 40 mph, so what did the car in front of me do today? Uphill 35 mph and downhill, well, halfway down, it took him that long to coast to 45 mph. Highways are not rollercoasters. Now, what should one do in a 40 mph zone? Straightaway, 40 mph; uphill, 40 mph; downhill, 40 mph, so how do I accomplish this?
Uphill, press down on the gas pedal; downhill, press down on the brake pedal.  On the straightaway, look at the speedometer once in a while.  I hope that this is not too complicated.

You Don't Have A Clue Yet

Remember, it is you who voted for Macron. Were all these churches "accidentally" destroyed in the past four years and the 47 in February alone?  RIP, France.

Click on link to view map of the churches that have been destroyed.


You Tailgate When Driving Downhill

I live on a mountain; therefore, I have to drive on a 6-degree downgrade roadway to get into town. I also have to drive on a 6-degree upgrade roadway to get back home. The speed limit is 40 mph, but most cars go 50 mph downhill and 35-40 going uphill. That is not so much the problem, the problem is that every single driver tailgates going downhill, but none tailgate going uphill. The minimum, not to tailgate on a level road is the 2-second rule. On the downhill, 95% of the cars are less than 1-second, approximately 1-2 car lengths behind the front car, while traveling uphill on the same road they are 3-4-seconds behind the car in front of them, anywhere between 5 to 10 car lengths. Why? Wouldn't just the reverse be much safer?

Doesn't it stand to reason, because of the pull of gravity, that it would take at least three times the time and distance traveling on a steep downhill roadway to stop than when traveling uphill? These are the same drivers that do this everyday. Why?

One of the reasons is that it's easier to go faster downhill because the driver doesn't have to do anything. The car just goes down the steep grade all by itself. It's nearly impossible, on the other hand, for a driver to maintain his speed uphill as he has to do something that is very difficult; he has to press down on the gas pedal; therefore, he can't catch up to the car in front of him.

By tailgating only: 15,000 killed, 750,000 hospitalized, and 2.7 million accidents yearly in the United States. Keep up the "good" work.

You Think That One Second Is Worth Your Life

As many as 16,000 people are killed every year in the United States because of tailgating, aka following too close.  As many as 80% of drivers tailgate every day.  The safe distance is determined by the 2-second rule, which I have mentioned many times and in my other Posts on Tailgating.
The safe distance, as mentioned in my Tick, Tock, Tick, Tock post, is determined by the element/weather.  Let's go with normal, dry weather and the 2-second rule.
The difference between tailgating and not tailgating is 1-second.  At 1-second or less time, behind the car in front of you will not give you time to stop if the driver in front encounters an obstruction and has to slow down or stop quickly.
At 2-seconds, which equals a car length for each 10-mph of speed, should give you the time necessary to react so you don't crash into it.  Should . . .  if you're paying attention to your driving.
It's only a 1-second difference.  If the road is wet and even if you decide to follow the 3-second rule to give you more time to react, do you think your boss will be able to differentiate whether you're 1-second or 2-seconds later to arrive at work, or wherever you're going?  I don't think so.
So you're not killed, but maybe you'll be one of the 750,000 who are hospitalized each year due to tailgating accidents, or one of the ones involved in the 2,700,000 accidents?
Is your life worth 1-second of your time?  Mine is.  That's why I don't tailgate.

Notice:  To view the other 10 Posts on Tailgating go to Categories in the right-hand column and click on the link at

You Improperly Feed Deer

                                                Deer Feeding by Humans
 Worse than a belly-ache.

 It takes two to four weeks of feeding on a new food source for deer to establish the microorganisms necessary to obtain nutrients from that food.  The time and energy it takes to convert to new microorganisms uses precious fat reserves that could have been spared if the deer had fed continually on natural winter browse.  Studies, including some in Pennsylvania, have documented the death of wild ruminants from feeding on highly digestible, high energy, low fiber feed such as corn in winter.  This rapid exposure to a concentrated grain diet can cause a fatal disruption of the animal's acid-base balance.  Those that survive the immediate effects often die in the days or weeks that follow, due to secondary complications of the disease.

Feeding by humans causes the concentration of a large herd which attracts predators such as bears, mountain lions, foxes, etc.  When the human, especially a child, is feeding the deer and there are predators around, as the human cannot run as fast as the deer, the predator, not being fussy about what it eats, will eat the human.  There are several recorded instances where the human child was killed and eaten by the predator.  Bears don't kill their prey before they start to eat it . . . human or otherwise.

It seems to the human, especially the human child, that they are helping the deer by giving them a treat and it's a fun thing to do, but they are actually killing the deer.  Irrespective of the predators, the deer themselves can become aggressive and harm the human.

If one feels that animals are in distress, such as injured or due to severe weather conditions and snowfall, he should call  the proper agency for advice and help.

The Dead of Winter

Winter mortality will never be eliminated, it's nature's way of ensuring that only the strongest of the species survive to reproduce.  Winter survival is determined by the availability of high quality fall food (to ensure fat accumulation) and winter thermal cover (to conserve energy).  By late fall, deer (even captive deer) instinctively reduce their food intake and continue to do so through most of the winter.  During that time, deer rely heavily on fat reserves and their ability to conserve energy, thereby making those reserves last longer.  They travel less and seek protection in cover where snow is less deep, wind is less severe and tempertures are warmer.  Winter energy conservation, especially important to fawns which use a good portion of their fall food to grow bone and muscle, not build up fat reserves.  If an animal's fat reserves are used up before the end of winter, it is much more likely to die.

That being said, any activity that causes increased energy demands can harm deer by compelling them to waste essential fat reserves.  Supplemental feedig can cause deer to expend more energy by coercing them to travel farther and more often and can increase winter starvation by luring in more animals than the feed can support.  In one study, feeding was found to increase the winter death rate from 25 to 42 percent.  Supplemental feeding also lowers the quality of the herd by enabling less fit individuals to avoid selective, natural winter culling.  High concentrations of wildlife at feeding sites also attract predators.  Animals expending energy to avoid those predators burn fat reserves that would have otherwise enabled them to survive the winter.

Sources:  Wildlife conservation websites.